Health and information – Phobias are feelings of excessive fear when faced with something that is actually not dangerous. These fears can arise when faced with certain circumstances, are in a place, or when seeing certain animals and objects. Phobias are classified into anxiety disorders. People with phobias will usually try to avoid situations and objects that can cause fear, or try to deal with it while holding back fear and anxiety.
Phobias can be caused by various things. Based on the types of fears that arise, phobias can be divided into 2 types, namely:
Specific phobias are phobias of specific objects, animals, circumstances, or activities. This phobia usually occurs during childhood or adolescence. Examples of specific phobias are fear of heights, fear of going to the dentist, fear of spiders, or fear of seeing blood. Sometimes, some people also have phobias that are quite unique, such as fear of pregnancy (tokophobia) and fear of the dark.
Complex phobias generally develop in adulthood. This type of phobia is often associated with fear and anxiety in a situation or condition. This phobia is divided into 2 types, namely:
- Agoraphobia, which is the fear of being in a place or condition that makes it difficult for the sufferer to escape, or in certain situations that will make it difficult for the sufferer to get help.
- Social phobia, i.e. fear that arises in certain social circumstances. For example, sufferers are very afraid to speak in front of people, so they cannot speak in public.
There are many factors that are thought to trigger phobias, including:
- Experiencing certain tragedies or trauma, for example, fear of flying due to having experienced turbulence on the plane.
- Have mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, OCD, panic attacks, PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), or other generalized anxiety disorder.
- Having parents who are very protective (over protective) or have a relationship that is less close to parents.
- Having family members who experience certain fears. For example, fear of deep water, because there are families who are also afraid of deep water.
- Having pressure or stress in the long run. Stress that is not managed properly risks reducing a person’s ability to overcome fears that arise in certain situations or circumstances.
- Other conditions, such as having a head injury that causes damage to the brain or have abused drugs or alcohol addiction.
Phobias can cause physical and mental symptoms due to excessive fear that occurs. In addition to excessive fear and anxiety, phobias can also be accompanied by panic attacks characterized by:
- The heart feels palpitations
- Hard to breathe
- Dizziness or headache
- Chest pain
- The neck feels suffocated
- Difficult to speak clearly
- The body trembles and sweats
- Ears ringing
- The sensation of always wanting to pee
- Mouth feels dry
- Always want to cry
- Fear of being left alone (especially in children)
Immediately consult a psychologist or psychiatrist if you have a phobia that has disrupted daily activities. Especially when these phobias interfere with productivity, both in school and workplaces, or disrupt social life.
For example, when a phobia is experienced that makes you avoid certain situations or places, feel very scared, anxious, or panicked, and when the phobia is experienced continuously for 6 months or more.
If you experience a traumatic event, consult a psychologist to get direction and treatment. That way, traumatic events do not cause further mental disorders.
Until now there has not been found a way to prevent phobias. However, there are several ways you can do if you experience a traumatic event or when you see or feel anxious things, such as:
– Share stories with family, friends, or psychologists about things that make you anxious or traumatized.
-Change the mindset to be more positive and see something feared so far more objectively.